`apply_step` function in 04_minst_basics notebook

Hello. In the End-to-End SGD Example in notebook 04, there is a function defined:

def apply_step(params, prn=True):
    preds = f(time, params)
    loss = mse(preds, speed)
    params.data -= lr * params.grad.data
    params.grad = None
    if prn: print(loss.item())
    return preds

This function take the initial parameters as inputs, does one step of optimization, prints the new loss function and returns new parameters. Also, there is a global variable params defined earlier:

params = torch.randn(3).requires_grad_()
Out: tensor([-0.7409,  0.3618,  1.9199], requires_grad=True)

When I try to call this function 10 times like that:

for i in range(10):

and check the value of a global variable params, I see that it is now different than before!!

In: params
Out: tensor([0.1022, 0.4145, 1.9254], requires_grad=True)

I am a little bit confused why does this function modifies the value of global variable params?

Also, when I try to simulate this situation with something less complex:

x = 5

def f(x):
    x += 1

for _ in range(100):

I get one hundred “6” printed inside my console. This means that the x is not updated during each iteration of the loop… That seems entirely different from the situation described in the question