DeepLearning-Lec1Notes

(Tim Lee) #1

My best attempt at capturing all the detail from tonight’s talk. Ran into trouble trying to actually run the GPU code. If someone got the rest of the lesson to work, I can try and compile notes together for something more comprehensive. For now, here’s what I got. Hope it is helpful.

Unofficial Deep Learning Lecture 1 Notes

What is Machine Learning?

Anything instead of programming a computer step by step, you provide examples instead. Arthur Samuels. Talking about breast cancer survivors. Can work really well, depends on the experts and if you can come up with the features.

In the last few years…

It’s become more advanced, can recommend pre-written responses. Can actually generate responses.

2. human can sketch, and the deep learning can turn that into a painting of any style. Newer versions can update the painting real-time.
3. How is Deep learning being used at Google?

Deep Learning AlphaGo

We are looking for a flexible math function that we can solve any problem. If its infinitely flexible, then there will be many many parameters. So to ensure that it works, we need to ensure that fitting those variables needs to be fast and scalable.

Earlier AlphaGO used images of the go-board itself in winning and non-winning situation and applied CNN onto them. (Now, state of the art reinforcement learning is used).

Key Element: Neural Network

The functional form is the neural network.

There are much recent optimization algorithms than gradient descent but we continue to use GD because in high dimensional space, gradient descent gives almost the same minima (as other algorithm’s), so it doesn’t really matter which algorithm we use for learning parameters.

This is how we optimize and move towards the optimal solution for all variables simultaneously. Below as a visual approach for a 2D search. J is considered the loss. We want the local minima. The two thetas are two input parameters.

Convolutional Neural Networks

http://setosa.io/ev/image-kernels/

Play with the interactive website (you can even upload your own photo or video) and customize your own kernel by changing the matrix values to manipulate one image to another.

**discussion ** - multiply pixel by numbers to get another set of pixels. The below example 3 x 3 is a ‘top edge detector’

``````import numpy as np

A = np.matrix ('1 2 1; 0 0 0; -1 -2 -1')
A
``````
``````matrix([[ 1,  2,  1],
[ 0,  0,  0],
[-1, -2, -1]])
``````

What about a right edge detector?

``````import numpy as np

A = np.matrix ('-1 0 1; -2 0 2; -1 0 1')
A
``````
``````matrix([[-1, 0, 1],
[-2, 0, 2],
[-1, 0, 1]])
``````

We are not doing a matrix product, we are doing element wise multiplication followed by addition.

What if you stacked all of these together in a linear combination?

Not very interesting.

**What if we used non-linear functions (sigmoid) ? ** turns out if we do a single layer, and we feed these linear operations through a non-linearity, and repeat that over and over again to represent a wide variety of problems.

Then we will “learn” the matrices necessary.

Most common non linear unit : ReLU or Rectified Linear Unit

1. Max of (0, value)
2. Cutting edge element

Sample of the different Layers of the Convolutional Neural Network

Layer 1 - edges
Layer 2 - color + shapes

Layer 5 - large complexity

Example Time ( Hour 2 Mark) - transition to Crestle

https://s.users.crestle.com/.../notebooks/courses/fastai/deeplearning1/nbs/lesson1.ipynb

Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Welcome to the first week of the first deep learning certificate! We’re going to use convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to allow our computer to see - something that is only possible thanks to deep learning.

Introduction to this week’s task: ‘Dogs vs Cats’

We’re going to try to create a model to enter the Dogs vs Cats competition at Kaggle. There are 25,000 labelled dog and cat photos available for training, and 12,500 in the test set that we have to try to label for this competition. According to the Kaggle web-site, when this competition was launched (end of 2013): State of the art: The current literature suggests machine classifiers can score above 80% accuracy on this task”. So if we can beat 80%, then we will be at the cutting edge as of 2013!

First, replace the default Keras with version 1.2.2. This is needed for part 1 of the course.

``````# Put these at the top of every notebook, to get automatic reloading and inline plotting
%matplotlib inline
``````
``````# This file contains all the main external libs we'll use

import sys
sys.path.append('/Users/tlee010/Desktop/github_repos/fastai/')
from fastai.imports import *
from fastai.transforms import *
from fastai.conv_learner import *
from fastai.model import *
from fastai.dataset import *
from fastai.sgdr import *
from fastai.plots import *
``````
``````PATH = "/Users/tlee010/Desktop/MSAN-pywork/DeepLearning/"
``````

How to look at functions

``````?
``````

For example, use ? in front of the ImageClassifierData function to review the function’s parameters. Alternatively, highlight the function, and press Shift+Tab.

``````??
``````

For example, use ?? in front of the ImageClassifierData function to review the source code.

Getting the Data of cats and dogs

``````!wget http://files.fast.ai/data/dogscats.zip
``````
``````--2017-10-30 20:36:22--  http://files.fast.ai/data/dogscats.zip
Resolving files.fast.ai... 67.205.15.147
Connecting to files.fast.ai|67.205.15.147|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 857214334 (818M) [application/zip]
Saving to: ‘dogscats.zip’

dogscats.zip        100%[===================>] 817.50M  6.93MB/s    in 2m 29s

2017-10-30 20:38:51 (5.50 MB/s) - ‘dogscats.zip’ saved [857214334/857214334]
``````

Unzip in same folder

``````!unzip dogscats.zip
``````

First look at cat pictures

Our library will assume that you have train and valid directories. It also assumes that each directory will have subdirectories for each class you wish to recognize (in this case, ‘cats’ and ‘dogs’).

``````PATH = "/Users/tlee010/Desktop/MSAN-pywork/DeepLearning/dogscats/"
``````
``````!ls {PATH}
``````
``````e[1me[36mmodelse[me[m e[1me[36msamplee[me[m e[1me[36mtest1e[me[m  e[1me[36mtraine[me[m  e[1me[36mvalide[me[m
``````
``````files = !ls {PATH}valid/cats | head
files
``````
``````['cat.1001.jpg',
'cat.10016.jpg',
'cat.10026.jpg',
'cat.10048.jpg',
'cat.10050.jpg',
'cat.10064.jpg',
'cat.10071.jpg',
'cat.10091.jpg',
'cat.10103.jpg',
'cat.10104.jpg']
``````
``````img = plt.imread(f'{PATH}valid/cats/{files[0]}')
plt.imshow(img);
``````

``````img.shape
``````
``````(499, 336, 3)
``````
``````img[:4,:4]
``````
``````array([[[60, 58, 10],
[60, 57, 14],
[61, 56, 18],
[63, 54, 23]],

[[56, 54,  6],
[56, 53, 10],
[57, 52, 14],
[60, 51, 20]],

[[52, 49,  4],
[52, 49,  6],
[53, 48, 10],
[56, 47, 16]],

[[50, 47,  2],
[50, 47,  4],
[51, 45,  9],
[53, 44, 13]]], dtype=uint8)
``````

Use ResNet 34, its generally the better library

The learning rate determines how quickly or how slowly you want to update the weights (or parameters). Learning rate is one of the most difficult parameters to set, because it significantly affect model performance.

The method `learn.lr_find()` helps you find an optimal learning rate. It uses the technique developed in the 2015 paper Cyclical Learning Rates for Training Neural Networks, where we simply keep increasing the learning rate from a very small value, until the loss starts decreasing. We can plot the learning rate across batches to see what this looks like.

We first create a new learner, since we want to know how to set the learning rate for a new (untrained) model.

Let’s run the Model!

``````sz=224
``````
``````%%time
data = ImageClassifierData.from_paths(PATH, tfms=tfms_from_model(resnet34, sz))
learn = ConvLearner.pretrained(resnet34, data, precompute=True)
learn.fit(0.01, 1)
``````

100%|██████████| 87306240/87306240 [00:02<00:00, 33445235.94it/s]
100%|██████████| 360/360 [01:58<00:00, 3.03it/s]
100%|██████████| 32/32 [00:10<00:00, 3.07it/s]

Choosing a learning rate

Number of Epochs

How many times should it go through the pictures to learn the different features.

Learning Rate

With gradient descent - you have to figure out which way is downhill. We take the derivative up hill or downhill. The learning rate is what do we multiple the derivative (gradient by). You might overshoot if you go too large, but if you go small, you might take forever to get there.

``````lrf=learn.lr_find()
``````

Better to find a learning rate

Paper

There’s a function for it in fastai library

``````??learn.lr_find()
``````
``````['/bin/bash: -c: line 1: syntax error: unexpected end of file']
``````
``````learn.lr_find()
``````

How it works

It uses mini-batches to calculate the learning rate, and then we can make a plot between error vs. learning rate. You want to choose a learning rate where the error doesn’t increase anymore.

``````learn.sched.plot_lr()
``````

When choosing a learning rate with the LR finder, you can plot a vertical line to ensure you choose the correct x-coordinate of the point you’re interested in. Otherwise it can be difficult to interpret values on the x-axis, since they’re in log scale.

``````import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
learn.sched.plot()
plt.axvline(x=1.6e-2, color="red");
``````

Wiki: Lesson 1
Deep Learning Brasília - Lição 1
Deep Learning Brasília - Lição 1
Wiki: Lesson 1
Deep Learning Brasília - Revisão (lições 1, 2, 3 e 4)
#2

Thanks Tim, great notes.

(WG) #3

@timlee … amazing work and amazing timeframe getting these notes up here (literally but a few hours since class ended)!

#4

excellent notes @timlee

I would also add the following links that Jeremy referred to during the lecture when he was talking about how best to learn in the fast.ai course (practicality - developing and writing code vs reading too many books and getting obsessed by the maths behind deep learning):

(Roberto Castrioto) #5

@timlee
Great work, very useful and usable!
(I spotted a minor thing in the following section: there should be question marks instead of exclamation marks)

?
??

(Victor Alfonso Arias Vanegas) #6

Excelent work, very complete thanks

(Arvind Nagaraj) #7

Looks like cuda library wasn’t installed properly on your machine. Hence the error.

Could you please make your post editable so we can all update it like a wiki?

Thanks and great work!

(Jeremy Howard) #8

No, question marks is correct.

@timlee I’ve added a link to this to the wiki post - thanks!

(Ashish Sardana) #9

Hi @timlee
I’ve made some notes of my own (my interpretation) which you can add under appropriate sections:

1. Earlier AlphaGO used images of the go-board itself in winning and non-winning situation and applied CNN onto them. (Now, state of the art reinforcement learning is used).

2. There are much recent optimization algorithms than gradient descent but we continue to use GD because in high dimensional space, gradient descent gives almost the same minima (as other algo’s), so it doesn’t really matter which algorithm we use for learning parameters.

(Jeremy Howard) #10

I’ve made @timlee’s post into a wiki post, so everyone can directly edit it to fix issues, add other notes, etc. (Tim let me know if you’d rather I turned it back to a regular post!)

#11

Thank you for sharing this! It’s very helpful!

(Roberto Castrioto) #12

Thanks, I edited my comment to reflect the correction.

(Tim Lee) #13

No, completely happy to let people edit!

(sergii makarevych) #14

kudos @timlee - great notes!

@timlee Thanks for your great effort. I am comparing my note and updating the Wiki bit by bit. Happy to compile notes together.

@jeremy Based on the confusion matrix, we can identify “dirty data” (false positive and false negative). In practice, should we remove all “dirty data” from training dataset and then re-train the model? Will this help the overall performance or overfit the model?

(Jeremy Howard) #16

You certainly wouldn’t want to remove any false positives/negatives that are actual modeling errors, of course. But removing incorrect images from the training set can help a bit (e.g. images that don’t contain a dog or a cat at all).

(Cedric Chee) #17

Came here to say a big thanks to @timlee for the excellent notes. Really appreciate the great effort. Useful for people who prefer text rather than video sometimes, like reading on mobile or in places where we have limited Internet access.

Hello Arvind, Really happy to see you here, I came to fast.ai after reading your blog on medium. Thanks man for writing that blog

(Lou Spironello) #19

Great notes. However some of the images are not displaying. I’m receiving the following errors:

The owner of this website (blog.xiax.ai) does not allow hotlinking to that resource (/2017/09/01/DNN-overview-and-Linear-model-with-CNN-features/layers of DNN.png).

and

The owner of this website (www.analyticsvidhya.com) does not allow hotlinking to that resource (/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/2.-ann-structure.jpg).

(Deep Maniyar) #20

I am trying to setup paperspace and it asked me for the reason i am going to use paperspace for, I wrote fast.ai MOOC.

My question is, how much does it take for them to verify? I want to be up and running as soon as possible.

Thanks.