Normalizing MRI

So I’ve used the search function but didn’t find anything about how to normalize MRI images.
As far as I’ve understood MR Image values don’t have a defined meaning (unlike for instance the Hounsfield Scale for CT images).

So I’m kind of stuck.
How does one normalize MR Images?
Is there a library that can do it automatically?
Also the meaning of the values can apparently vary not only between patients, devices but also scanned areas within a single patient on the same machine (at the moment I want to work with MR Images of the knee, but later on I would like to try other areas as well).

I found this study from 1999 which was referenced in some ML papers


But honestly I don’t quite understand it.

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

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