Live coding 7

You beat me to it.

I didn’t drill down into cache but pkgs is the bulk of it

I’m not sure how that interacts with the rest of micromamba, conda, etc. What is the function of that folder? I’ve been trying to read up on it but I find the explanations confusing. Why is it ok to delete it?

Hmmm maybe we should use ~/.conda as our prefix then…

Yes totally fine - it’s just a cache.

Jeremy used micromamba to unzip the kaggle file, but I never installed micromamba before. Should I just follow the instructions on their website and install it in root? (I’m using paperspace).

You can just wget it - it doesn’t need to be installed. Put it anywhere you like. If you put it somewhere not in $PATH then you’ll need to include the path when you call it.

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The usual rough but detailed note for walkthru 7

00:00 Radek intro
Practice walk-thru 6 / chp1 on Kaggle

03:22 Jeremy introduces Kaggle competitions and reminded us that we have to join the competition before downloading the dataset

06:05Paperspace had some running issues even to the paid servers, and continue the session on local machine

10:08 How to install Kaggle (presumbly the code will work on both local and paperspace)? pip install --user kaggle

10:58 What’s special about the things installed/stored in a /bin/ directory? things/programs you can execute

11:17 Why we can’t run kaggle in terminal just now? because the /bin/ directory is not in $PATH

11:41 How to get the bin/ directory where kaggle is installed into $PATH? On paperspace, we can add the bin directory to $PATH through /storage/.bash.local file (here is Jeremy explain what the file does it for you) which enable kaggle to work on a new terminal next time; on local machine, you can do the same with .bashrc file; Radek and Jeremy also confirmed that if you want to run !kaggle in jupyter notebook, you need to also to add bin/ directory to $PATH in file.

12:31 Another question answered

13:14 How to edit .bashrc : 1. vim .bashrc or /.bash.local if paperspace; shift + g to go to the bottom of the file; o to enter a new line and edit; type export PATH=~/.local/bin:$PATH to add the bin/ directory to $PATH; 2. type :qw to save and exit vim; 3. in terminal type source !$ (meaning source theLastCommandParameter) to run .bashrc or you can close and reopen a terminal

14:12 How to get kaggle.json and put it in the right directory? 1. type kaggle will remind you to have kaggle.json ready in the right place; 2. go to your Kaggle account and click create new API token to download the kaggle.json file; 3. sudo cp .kaggle/kaggle.json ~anotherUser/.kaggle to copy a file (here kaggle.json) from one user to another user; 4. and other command to change the ownership of a file

18:09 How to use kaggle cli to download competition dataset? cd git; mkdir paddy; cd !$; kaggle competitions download -c paddy-disease-classification to create a folder to download the dataset; How big is the paddy doctor dataset size? 1GB

18:52 mamba vs pip on installing kaggle? for simple python packages, pip install is a more obvious choice than mamba install

20:35 How to unzip the dataset file? paddy$ unzip -q to unzip the file without display the processing messages with -q for quiet

20:54 How to get kaggle.json available in paperspace? 1. use the upload button in paperspace jupyter lab to upload kaggle.json and store it in ~/.kaggle/kaggle.json; 2. make sure the file permission is properly -rw------- and search chmod for how Jeremy taught us to change user permission on files; 3. Radek in the post suggested to write your own kaggle.json and save in paperspace as a different solution

21:46 How to copy files to different local server? How to utilize .ssh/config file? involving cp, chown, scp etc

24:14 How to check your local GPU? type nvidia-smi

25:06 How to check out the paddy dataset? mv ~/ ./ move the zip file to current folder from home directory, and unzip it with unzip -q; and ls to see what inside;

25:32How to explore the dataset folder in terminal? ls train_images/ |head and what this command does is to take the output of ls train_images/ and send it to head to process; How to look into files in subfolder? ls train_images/bacterial_leaf_blight/ | head; How to count the number of files inside a subfolder? ls train_images/bacterial_leaf_blight/ | wc -l in which | wc -l takes the output from ls folderName and count the number of lines; What are other useful functions like | head? | tail output the last few file names, | grep 33 to output the filenames with ‘33’ in it; paddy# cat will output what inside this folder; cat train.csv | head can give us the first few rows of the csv file; cat train.csv | grep ADT45 | wc -l to search rows with ‘ADT45’ in train.csv and count the number of those rows

Go through the above steps in paperspace
29:09 How to use the correct version of pip to install kaggle? 1. check the version which pip: if it is not from the directory opt/conda/bin/pip then remove the found version with mv root/conda/bin/pip for example, and restart terminal and try which pip to check and confirm; 2. ctrl + r and type pip to find pip install kaggle --user to install kaggle; 3. However, the warning message confirmed that the kaggle is installed in a directory /root/.local/bin which is not on the $PATH, and we need to get it into $PATH; 4. we could add it to the $PATH by .bashrc in local machine or .bash.local in paperspace, but we will try Radek’s approach with just add the following command into the end of the file export PATH=~/.local/bin:$PATH and be aware that bash is very much sensitive on space, so don’t leave space inside the command; 5. if you run export PATH=~/.local/bin:$PATH directly in terminal, then you don’t have to close and restart a terminal to activate the new $PATH; 6. type kaggle, it should run and also tellings us to get kaggle.json in the right directory; 7. upload kaggle.json to paperspace; 8. did kaggle created a ~/.kaggle folder for us? yes, we can confirm by cd ~/.kaggle; ls; 9. let’s move the updated kaggle.json into ~/.kaggle by mv /notebooks/kaggle.json ./; 10. we will find the permission of kaggle.json is wrong as it is -rw-r--r-- by ls -la; 11. we can fix the permission by chmod 600 kaggle.json; 11. now copy the download command from the paddy competition site, and run ~/.kaggle# kaggle download -c paddy-disease-classification; 12. let’s move the zip file into /notebooks/paddy/ by a trick taught by Jeremy earlier in walkthru 6 ~/.kaggle# mkdir -p ../notebooks/paddy/; mv ../notebooks/paddy/;; 13. let’s unzip the dataset zip file by unzip -q;

34:47 How to install unzip for paperspace? micromamba install -c conda-forge -p ~/conda unzip and hopefully by July or August 2022 mamba and unzip will be installed by paperspace without us doing it manually;

34:50 How to get the keyboard shortcut in terminal working for paperspace terminal too? (later sessions?)

36:59 How to deal with large dataset and cost of persistence storage? 1. if dataset sits in /notebooks/ it will be charged with 0.29 dollar per GB/month; 2. if don’t want to spend any money, then move dataset into home directory ~/, and you will lose the dataset when closing the notebook/machine and have to download it again when starting the notebook again. You could write a script to automate the downloading process; 3. If you will work on this dataset for a month, then $0.29 surely worth your time.

38:04 It takes a long time for Paperspace to store large files into persistence storage, at least for folders with a lot of files. How to make utilising dataset faster in paperspace without much trouble? 1. How to find the disk space a folder take? du -sh train_images/; 2. why does Jeremy think it may be a better idea to move dataset back to home directory ~? we don’t want to take a long time to utilise the datasest when training a model; 3. how to delete multiple folders and files in one go? rm -rf test_images/ train* sample_submission.csv and train* include train_images/ and train.csv, and even deleting them takes a while; 4. How much time does it take home directory to unzip a 1GB dataset file? time unzip -q (only 8 seconds, and only 5 seconds to download), so we should make the download and unzip automated in the home directory when starting the paddy notebook.

41:14 How can we create a script to automate the download and unzip process of paddy dataset inside home directory (when starting the paddy notebook)? 1. create a directory paddy inside \notebooks\, save the paddy jupyter notebook there, and the automation script there too; 2. What does the look like? ( #question shouldn’t we do pushd ~; popd in the script below?) 3. how to make executable? chmod u+x; 4. so now, you can run this every time you start the paddy notebook/machine to automatically download and unzip the dataset into the home directory; (or you can put into so that you don’t need to run yourself.

!#usr/bin/env bash
mkdir paddy
cd paddy
kaggle download -c paddy-disease-classification
unzip -q paddy-disease*

43:08 Create a jupyter notebook for paddy competition. 1. What’s the first thing Jeremy usually do for an image competition/task like this? from import * to get all the classes and methods on vision ready for use; 2. How to get the path for dataset ready? path = Path.home()/'paddy', use path to check the dataset directory; 3. use to show us what in there, and if we type Path.BASE_PATH = path, then will leave the directory part out and make the content name more readable; 4. How to take a look at the train.csv file? df = pandas.read_csv(path/'train.csv'); df to read the first and last few rows of the csv file; (continued to the next paragraph below)

from import *
path = Path.home()/'paddy'
Path.BASE_PATH = path
df = pandas.read_csv(path/'train.csv')

45:19 How to take a look at the image listed in the csv file? 1. How to get the path for train_images/ and a path to a particular category bacterial_leaf_blight: trn_path = path/'train_images'; blb = trn_path/'bacterial_leaf_blight';; 2. How to display an image with its path? img = PILImage.create(blb/'100330.jpg'); img; 3. What is the size of the image? img.size (size is not a method as it seems); 4. How to get all the image paths into a list? files = get_image_files(trn_path); files; img = PILImage.create(files[0]);; 5. How to check whether the image size is consistent in all images? [PILImage.create(o).size for o in files[:10]]

from import *
path = Path.home()/'paddy'
Path.BASE_PATH = path
df = pandas.read_csv(path/'train.csv')
trn_path = path/'train_images'
blb_path = trn_path/'bacterial_leaf_blight'
img = PILImage.create(blb/'100330.jpg')
files = get_image_files(trn_path)
img = PILImage.create(files[0]);
[PILImage.create(o).size for o in files[:10]]
ImageDataLoaders.from_folder(trn_path, valid_pct=0.2, seed=42, item_tfms=Resize(224)) dls.show_batch()
learn = vision_learner(dls, resnet34, metrics=error_rate)

49:40 What to think about image sizes? paddy image size is consistent, which is handy and interesting (why interesting?), and the size of the images seem big. Jeremy’s advice is to start with smaller sizes and then move onto original size, but 480x 640 is not terribly large.

51:00 What shall we do with the meta data variety of paddy/rice? 1. our model may not need the variety data to train itself for the task, as the images can give model enough knowledge to figure out variety; 2. but if the number of variety is too many, then this variety data may be useful/necessary to our model; 3. how to count the unique varieties of paddy using variety data? df.variety.value_counts(); 4. given only 10 unique varieties, and 70% of images belong to a single variety, so variety should be a low priority in our dataset for training model;

53:10 Build a ImageDataLoaders with train_images or its path: 1. since chap1 or 01_intro notebook of fastbook is on vision model, so maybe some code can be borrowed; 2. How to create a ImageDataLoader from train_images/ folder? dls = ImageDataLoaders.from_folder(trn_path, valid_pct=0.2, seed=42, item_tfms=Resize(224)) and we can show a batch of images with dls.show_batch();

56:50 Build a learner and fine-tune it: 1. How to build a model with vision classification model with Resnet34 using our dls? learn = vision_learner(dls, resnet34, metrics=error_rate) will download the resnet34 weights for us and create the model learn; 2. How to fine-tune this model for one epoch? learn.fine_tune(1)

57:07 How do we know our model is using GPU efficiently? 1. in terminal type nvidia-smi dmon and focus on reading two columns sm and mm (memory); 2. sm stands for GPU, we want to see the number to be high 70-90% is good, and if the error rate is quite low from training, then we can assume we are successfully training our model; 3. if sm is lower than 50% then it suggest GPU is not properly used by our model; 4. if that happens, what are the potential causes for the lower number to deal with: A most likely cause is that we are not reading and process images fast enough for model to use, which could be a result of storing dataset inside /storage/ or /notebooks/ as they are network storages meaning slow;

1:00:11 What are the potential solutions to improve on sm? 1. move dataset to local storage like home directory from storage/ or notebooks/; 2. resize images ahead of time (to make them smaller); 3. decrease the amount of augmentation; 4. pick an instance/machine with more CPUs

1:02:03 Next session for kaggle submission and kaggle notebook


Thank you. I did wget it, but it didn’t unzip all the files correctly (I’m missing two files and the ones it did unzip-- they seem incomplete). Any idea how to fix this?

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I found a solution (sorta). I used:

sudo apt-get install unzip

so my get data script looks like this.

I guess I can’t use wget on a zipped file, but rather need a link (which I couldn’t get on Kaggle).

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Maybe a silly question, but how is pip install --user different from conda install -p ~/.local as long as ~/.local is in $PATH?

If they’re the same, seems like it would save a lot of trouble.

I think they’re pretty much the same. How does using conda here save a lot of trouble?

Turns out that it doesn’t.

My thought was to use conda install -p ~/.local as a drop-in replacement for pip install --user. You could then install mamba there, have persistence and not need to download all of the dependencies. Also, you wouldn’t need to use pip at all. IOW, the idea was to use .local for conda as you do for pip. But I get an error that .local is not a conda environment. So it doesn’t work, as I should have guessed.

There is an option to convert it to a conda environment but I don’t want to do it because I suspect it will then just be treated like the conda folder that we created (and download all of the dependencies anyway) and I’ll ruin my ability to download there with pip.

According to the docs it is also necessary to run this line:

eval "$(./bin/micromamba shell hook -s posix)"

I found that this code was necessary when I tried running mamba after wget.

You then need to add this and the new path to the config file. They suggest adding it to .bashrc using the command micomamba shell init but in our case that won’t persist, so I imagine that it needs to go into or bash.local?

Assuming that micromamba is in ~/conda (via symlink), is the following what the script should look like:

export MAMBA_ROOT_PREFIX=~/conda

eval "$(~/conda/bin/micromamba shell hook -s posix)

In the docs they use eval "$(./bin/micromamba shell hook -s posix) but I think this relative path assumes that the command is run from the directory where the binary is located?

What is a shell hook, and will implementing it conflict with anything else? I couldn’t find an explanation.

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I wouldn’t suggest going down this path. What you’re doing here is creating a full python environment in your home directory, which is going to confuse things since that’s not the python jupyter uses. It also uses a lot of space. We’re just using micromamba to install binaries.

Thanks! Glad that I didn’t add that to config files, then.

The idea was to install micromamba without doing the installation of conda as well, that then required deleting Python, etc., as well as creating conflicts with pip.

I found that if I just wget the micromamba files and try to run micromamba but don’t have the conda files installed then it does not work without the shell hook. Not sure if others found a way to do it?

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I’ll try to figure out a minimal set of steps then will create a script for it all.

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At [7:35] someone asked if you can SSH into paperspace.
You can if you get a public IP for $3/mth.

At [24:25] its mentioned the scp is deprecated. What are the alternatives?
rsync was mentioned. Its many years since I used rsync and I only knew it in daemon configuration. Reading the rsync man page I see it can now be used as…
rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

At [34:50] Jeremy finds CTRL-R doesn’t work to search shell history in JupyterLab Terminal due to browser-refresh taking priority. I found “How do we search in these terminals?” an interesting question, so I had a hunt around and discovered fzf.

After sudo apt-get install fzf on my local machine and experimenting with an online sed tester to strip leading numbers and spaces, I worked out the following might make a good alternative history seach…

alias hs='$(history | sed "s/^[ 0-9]\+//" | fzf)'

Tips for shell newbies:

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You can remove that nowadays - it’s default.

rsync is the recommended alternative to scp.

At [23:16] we get a quick glimpse at Jeremy’s local .ssh/config file.
Could a redacted version be posted including commonly used hosts, with a discussion of options and forwarded ports? I read the man page but some additional background info for particular cases would be useful.

This is a summary of what I could see…


  • ServerAliveInterval 60
  • ServerAliveCountMax 30
  • StrictHostKeyChecking no


  • Port 22 - manpage indicates 22 is default
  • TCPKeepAlive yes - manpage indicates ‘yes’ is default
  • IdentitiesOnly no - manpage indicates ‘no’ is default

personal machines

  • LocalForward ports 8888, 8000, 4000, 3000, 3001

These global ones are actually fairly straight forward, although until I found it too tedious my personal preference for StrictHostKeyChecking would ‘ask’.

I added those many many years ago! I guess they’re not needed now…

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I think you’ve already got the interesting bits frankly

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